The time proximity of orders and the fact that they are for substantially the same price (particularly if the price is out-of-range) and quantity may suggest that the transaction is pre-arranged. Pre-arranged transactions have the effect of creating a false or misleading appearance of active trading, or improperly excluding other market participants from the transaction since the first bid or offer was not adequately exposed to the market.

Added on 3 June 20193 June 2019.